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response 7

Hi, I have 3 of my classmates’ posts. I need you to respond to each one separately. Also, one source at least for each one of them. Don’t write about how good their posts or how bad. All you need to do is to choose one point of the post and explore it a little bit with one source support for each response. The paper should be APA style.

The question was:

(DB wk 7)Special Topics: Conspiracy theories, Fake News, Social Media and Disaster

Listen to “The Daily” podcast episode from May 24,2018 (23 min)

Next, read these two articles, which can be found in Wk 11 Module’s “Additional Readings” folder.

  • Psychological Outcomes in Reaction to Media Exposure to Disasters and Large-Scale Violence: A Meta-Analysis
  • Social Media in Disaster Risk Reduction and Crisis Management

Social Media and the Internet undoubtedly give us helpful tools for crisis response and management. That said, there are negatives that can sometimes outweigh the positives.

1. Discuss the ways that the changing media landscape is affecting the psychosocial consequences of disaster, for better or for worse.

2. Reflect on the ways that media (social or otherwise) positively and negatively impact crisis management. How can we quell the rumor mill? How do we combat further traumatization?

This the first post from my classmate IBRAHIM need for response:

Social media and the use of online platforms have been deemed to be effective in information sharing in a community. The online community has grown drastically, and people are increasingly benefiting from the use of online platforms and social media. However, concerns have been raised on the implications of the effects of excessive and faults associated with the online platforms. For instance, there are vital cases that have been misrepresented in the online channels whereby people mistakenly share wrong and lousy information that affects the psychologies of others.

The modernization and development of the media have changed and taken the shape of modern society and its habitats. The use of social media is considered the current norm that involves the sharing of information and ideas regardless of their sources. Fake news and propaganda are being circulated in the social media platforms, whereby the effects of the circulation of the fake news are vastly based on the psychological issues facing the victims of an online bully. Also, online bullies have been rampant in modern societies which have increased cases of psychological problems affecting the targeted victims (Hopwood & Schutte, 2017). For example, the case of Alex Jones being sued for defamation by the parents of the children that were killed in Sandy Hook Elementary School in 2012. The case reflects the nature of the use of social media and online platforms to spread rumors and propaganda and how it affects other minority victims.

Social media and other online platforms have been effective in promoting the sharing of news and ideas concerning a community. For example, social media in the current settings is considered to be the fastest channel that helps in circulating information from one point to another. The use of online platforms has been used to air views or conduct surveys on public opinion, which is used to draw conclusions (Alexander, 2014). Also, the social media platforms are being utilized as a tool for crisis management in a community whereby the users access and share their suggestions, recommendations, or offer supportive messages to people affected during disasters. Therefore, online platforms have been vital in disaster and crisis management in modern societies.

However, social media and other online platforms have been used to manipulate of share wrong news to the societies. Fake ideologies and theories are being shared in the online channels which have posed a threat to the credibility of the use of online platforms. For example, the case of Alex Jones being sued due to the spread of fake theories is evident that people in the online platforms would be manipulated by wrong and inciting ideologies that are started by individuals for personal gains (Alexander, 2014). The reports and analysis of the case have argued that the consequences of the incidence are based on the psychological torture to the parents of the victims who died in the massacre.

The issues affecting the community are the wrong use of online platforms and social media in spreading propaganda and attacking individuals and cyber bully. The government and the legal system should implement strategies that tend to protect the minorities and the victims of defamation with the aim of curbing the cases of spreading false ideologies (Hopwood & Schutte, 2017). Also, people should understand that the law permits freedom of expression, but ethical consideration on attacking or spreading fake rumors should be guided by moral conduct which helps individuals in understanding the wrong from the bad while not the legal or illegal assumption.


Alexander, D. E. (2014). Social media in disaster risk reduction and crisis management. Science and engineering ethics, 20(3), 717-733.

Hopwood, T. L., & Schutte, N. S. (2017). Psychological outcomes in reaction to media exposure to disasters and large-scale violence: A meta-analysis. Psychology of violence, 7(2), 316.

This the second post from my classmate GUFRAN need for response:

Technology is highly diverse. Digital media is a big part of the technology that is growing up in this generation and became part of the granted social and cultural fabric of learning, playing, and social communication. The development of smartphones and computers made the media commonplace and universal. Users of social media can share links with a broader network of people than the limited neighborhoods and schools. Users of social media can connect with others who are far away and share their interests, opinion, and experiences. Social media can be a tool for the community to communicate. According to Xiao, Huang, & Wu (2015), In disaster management, social media is increasingly being used for information dissemination and the establishment of situational awareness. However, you can not control the posts and comments on social media. Some posts can impact the psychological aspects of victims. News of disasters can cause psychological harm.

It is essential to understand the psychological outcomes associated with media. Due to disaster news in media, people may suffer from increased anxiety, depression, a heightened sense of threat, and posttraumatic stress symptomology. The information should be correct and up to date to minimize the rumors. Public information officer has direct communication with the news, media, and public. In a time of crisis, public information officers may face many issues that make the work more challenging. The first issue is the overload of Information. Overload of Information can affect personal well-being, decision making, innovation, and productivity. Moreover, the sensitivity and the difficult information that have to share with their audiences. Some information can cause psychological harm to the audiences.

The second issue is social media problems. social media are increasingly important, and a very fast form of communication. However, during a crisis, the message that posts it may translate into a different way and make issues like responsibility and blame. the third issue happened when the report published, the public will ask questions to get a more clear picture. What usually happens is the reporters decide what to tell their viewers about what is occurring which may cause inaccurate information.

Xiao, Y., Huang, Q., & Wu, K. (2015). Understanding social media data for disaster management. Natural Hazards, 79(3), 1663-1679. doi:10.1007/s11069-015-1918-0

Alexander, D. E. (2013). Social Media in Disaster Risk Reduction and Crisis Management. Science and Engineering Ethics, 20(3), 717-733. doi:10.1007/s11948-013-9502-z

Hopwood, T. L., & Schutte, N. S. (2017). Psychological outcomes in reaction to media exposure to disasters and large-scale violence: A meta-analysis. Psychology of Violence, 7(2), 316-327. doi:10.1037/vio0000056

This the third post from my classmate FAHAD need for response:

The rapidly changing media landscape focuses on enhancing community sensitization to the content they display or air on their platforms. However, this has resulted in negative psychosocial impacts not only for the surviving victims but also for the public. According to research, the finding s suggest that the exposure people have experienced while watching the disaster unfold has created cases of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorders (Hopwood and Schutte, 2017). Also, there were cases of complicated grief, especially when the television and magazine displayed events of people jumping for the towers during the September 11 attack. The media coverage, mainly the television, which is the most used media platform, has implicated adverse emotional reactions to viewers during disaster events. The consumption of media coverage has created emotional distress among the public hence causing anxiety and depression. This is because the public will be drawn to the media coverage to comprehend the disasters, but due to the exaggerated media coverage and content, viewers will struggle with complicated grief, in the short term. Also, the use of other media coverage platforms such as the radio, internet, and newspapers have instilled fear upon the public when disaster strikes. This has led to negative psychosocial implications that drive the affected victims to engage in substance abuse or alcoholism to cope with the memory of the disaster, which was traumatizing for most.

Media I various forms such as Facebook, blogs, and messages can be utilized and applied in emergency fields to help manage crisis, although the impact may be negative or positive. Social media can be used positively to manage crisis situation through listening to debates, crowdsourcing, monitoring situations, and enhancing research on the crisis (Alexander, 2014). Additionally, social media positively impacts crisis management through extending emergency response, creating social cohesion and furthering causes such as charitable donations or collaborative developments. However, media can also be the cause for enhancing negative crisis management through dissemination through various platforms and users such as bloggers. Also, media, including Facebook, can participate in the promotion of terrorist acts and subverting the authority, which in turn undermines crisis management (Alexander, 2014). The rumor mill can be quelled by ensuring that members and participants in the media heed to the ethical warnings to adapt and cope with the enticing work environments. On the other hand, further traumatization can be combated in media coverage by ensuring that social media is not abused or misused when a disaster occurs. Therefore, strict policies and ethical principles can be set to ensure that media coverage is not manipulated to facilitate negative crisis management.

The rapidly changing media landscape has negatively affected psychosocial outcomes that the public and viewers experience once disaster unfold through the media. The media is abused to sensitize the community irrespective of the costs and impacts it has, such as anger, fear, depression, substance abuse, and PTSD cases. On the other hand, the media can contribute positively or negatively to crisis management. Its positive contribution can be enhanced through monitoring situations, furthering causes, and facilitating research while negatively, the media can sabotage crisis management by disseminating rumors and promoting terrorist acts.


Hopwood, T. L., & Schutte, N. S. (2017). Psychological outcomes in reaction to media exposure to disasters and large-scale violence: A meta-analysis. Psychology of violence, 7(2), 316.

Alexander, D. E. (2014). Social media in disaster risk reduction and crisis management. Science and engineering ethics, 20(3), 717-733.

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