Discussion: Social Observational Learning
For the Discussion this week, you will apply these concepts to the demonstration of observational learning in your own life.
To prepare for this Discussion:
- Read Chapter 10 of your course text.
- Think of times in your life where you learned something through social observational learning. Consider factors such as the characteristics of the models (attractive, likeable, skilled or unskilled, etc.), and the difficulty level of the tasks, etc.
- Think of one example of a behavior that you have learned through vicarious reinforcement.
- Think of one example of a behavior that you have learned through vicarious punishment.
- Consider how you could use social observational procedures to create a fad or trend among your friends, or how you might use social observational procedures to motivate a family member or coworker.
With these thoughts in mind:
- In the subject line of your post add the name of one of the behaviors that is the focus of your Discussion (e.g., learned work behavior through vicarious reinforcement).
- In the body of your post, explain one example of a behavior that you learned through vicarious reinforcement. Discuss the characteristics of the observer(you), model(s), difficulty level of the tasks and the outcome.
- Explain one example of a behavior that you learned through vicarious punishment. Discuss the characteristics of observer(you), the model(s) and the outcome.
- Provide one idea for how you could use social observational procedures to create a fad or trend among your friends, OR how you might use social observational procedures to motivate a family member or coworker. Explain the process using observational learning concepts.
Assignment: Generalization and Maintenance of Behavior
“A behavioral change may be said to have generality if it proves durable over time, if it appears in a wide variety of possible environments, or if it spreads to a wide variety of related behaviors” (Baer, Wolf, & Risley, 1968, p. 96).
Generalization and discrimination and stimulus control add tremendously to the survival value of learning because environments are always changing. Generalization is the tendency for the effects of learning to spread. In a classic study, Baer, Wolf, and Risley (1968) identified terminology for the ways a behavior may show generality:
- Across settings and situations known as stimulus generalization, and occurs when responses that have been reinforced in the presence of a specific stimulus occur in the presence of different, but similar stimuli (also referred to as a stimulus class). An example: When your cell phone rings (the stimuli) you have learned to answer the phone by saying “Hello.” At work, the phone on your desk has a different ring tone and when it rings you also pick up the receiver to answer and say “Hello.” The different types of ring tones all belong to the same stimulus class.
- Across behaviors known as response generalization, and occurs when a similar but different response generalizes and spreads across environments or behaviors. For example, you learn to play and navigate a video game with a joystick controller at an arcade. Later you learn to play the same game on your computer at home, but instead of using a joystick controller to navigate you use your computer keyboard and mouse.
- Over time known as response maintenance, which is the process of continuing to exhibit a behavior. This is essentially the opposite of forgetting (the focus of Chapter 12).
To prepare for this Assignment:
- Read Chapter 11 of your course textbook. Consider the relations between generalization, discrimination, and stimulus control.
- Read the assigned Steeg and Sullivan (2009) article.https://eds-a-ebscohost-com.ezp.waldenulibrary.org/eds/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?vid=1&sid=3a4e2a08-dcf7-4eea-8e42-b5d3124bfd71%40sdc-v-sessmgr02
- Examine your own experiences from when you were a high school student and identify factors that worked well for you in maintaining academic behaviors.
- Read the following scenario:
Hazel, a 16-year old high school student, is given plenty of time in her English Composition class to work on writing. However, she usually does not complete her writing assignment within the time allotted during the class period. She rarely completes her English composition homework either.
- Engaging your knowledge of principles of reinforcement and punishment, consider the concepts of generalization, discrimination, and stimulus control, and propose procedures that could increase Hazel’s English composition classwork completion and homework completion behaviors.
- Once Hazel increases her English composition classwork completion and homework completion, consider how Hazel will maintain the positive behavior changes, and how the changes could be applied to other subjects, such as math.
Post: Drawing on your reading of the Steege and Sullivan (2009) article and textbook, complete the following two questions:
- Explain the procedures you devised that could increase Hazel’s English composition classwork and homework completion.
- Explain how Hazel will maintain the positive behavior changes, and how the changes could be applied to other subjects, such as math.