Case Study 1 & 2 Due by 01/29/2022 at 11:59pm
Case Study 1 & 2 (10 Points)
Students must review the case study and answer all questions with a scholarly response using APA and include 2 scholarly references. Answer both case studies on the same document and upload 1 document to Moodle.
Case Study 1 & 2 topics change every semester. Topic TBA
The answers must be in your own words with reference to the journal or book where you found the evidence to your answer. Do not copy-paste or use past students’ work as all files submitted in this course are registered and saved in turn it in the program.
Answers must be scholarly and be 3-4 sentences in length with rationale and explanation. No Straight forward / Simple answer will be accepted.
Turn it in Score must be less than 25 % or will not be accepted for credit, must be your own work and in your own words. You can resubmit, Final submission will be accepted if less than 25 %. Copy paste from websites or textbooks will not be accepted or tolerated. Please see College Handbook with reference to Academic Misconduct Statement.
All answers to case studies must have reference cited in the text for each answer and a minimum of 2 Scholarly References (Journals, books) (No websites) per case StudyPagana: Mosby’s Manual of Diagnostic and Laboratory Tests, 5th Edition
Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE)
A 24-year-old woman had been complaining of multiple joint and muscular pains and
stiffness in the morning. She also noted some hair loss and increased skin sensitivity to light.
Her physical examination showed slight erythema around the cheek bones and some swelling
in the joints of her hands.
Routine laboratory work Within normal limits (WNL), except for mild
Urinalysis, p. 956 Profuse proteinuria and cellular casts
Antinuclear antibody (ANA), p. 88 1:256 (normal: <1:20)
Anti-DNA 398 units (normal: <70 units)
Anti-ENA Positive (normal: negative)
Anticardiolipin antibody (ACA), p. 68
Immunoglobulin (Ig) G 96 g/L (normal: <23 g/L)
IgM 78 mg/L (normal: <11 mg/L)
Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), p. 221 75 mm/hour (normal: ≤20 mm/hour)
Immunoglobulin electrophoresis, p. 312
IgG 1910 mg/dL (normal: 565-1765 mg/dL)
IgA 450 mg/dL (normal: 85-385 mg/dL)
IgM 475 mg/dL (normal: 55-375 mg/dL)
Total complement assay, p. 172 22 hemolytic units/mL (normal: 41-90
The positive ANA and ACA tests strongly supported the diagnosis of systemic lupus
erythematosus (SLE). The patient also had a facial rash suggestive of SLE. The elevated ESR
indicated a systemic inflammatory process. The immunoelectrophoresis results were
compatible with either RA or SLE; however, a decreased complement assay is commonly
associated with SLE. The abnormal urinalysis indicated that the kidneys also were involved
with the disease process. The patient was treated with steroids and did well for 7 years.
Unfortunately, her renal function deteriorated, and she required chronic renal dialysis.
1. Explain the significance of the urinalysis results as they relate to renal involvement with
2. Why is the ESR increased in inflammatory conditions?
Pagana: Mosby’s Manual of Diagnostic and Laboratory Tests, 5th Edition
AIDS (Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome)
Case Study 2
The patient, a 30-year-old homosexual man, complained of unexplained weight loss, chronic
diarrhea, and respiratory congestion during the past 6 months. Physical examination revealed
right-sided pneumonitis. The following studies were performed:
Complete blood cell count (CBC), p. 174
Hemoglobin (Hgb), p. 259 12 g/dL (normal: 14-18 g/dL)
Hematocrit (Hct), p. 256 36% (normal: 42%-52%)
Chest X-ray, p. 1014 Right-sided consolidation affecting the posterior
Bronchoscopy, p. 587 No tumor seen
Lung biopsy, p. 738 Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia (PCP)
Stool culture, p. 855 Cryptosporidium muris
Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome
(AIDS) serology, p. 297
p24 antigen Positive
Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay
Western blot Positive
Lymphocyte immunophenotyping, p. 306
Total CD4 280 (normal: 600-1500 cells/L)
CD4% 18% (normal: 60%-75%)
CD4/CD8 ratio 0.58 (normal: >1.0)
Human immune deficiency virus (HIV)
viral load, p. 297
The detection of Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia (PCP) supports the diagnosis of AIDS.
PCP is an opportunistic infection occurring only in immunocompromised patients and is the
most common infection in persons with AIDS. The patient’s diarrhea was caused by
Cryptosporidium muris, an enteric pathogen, which occurs frequently with AIDS and can be
identified on a stool culture. The AIDS serology tests made the diagnoses. His viral load is
significant, and his prognosis is poor.
The patient was hospitalized for a short time for treatment of PCP. Several months after he
was discharged, he developed Kaposi sarcoma. He developed psychoneurologic problems
eventually and died 18 months after the AIDS diagnosis.
Case Studies 2
Copyright 2014 by Mosby, Inc., an imprint of Elsevier Inc.
Critical Thinking Questions
1. What is the relationship between levels of CD4 lymphocytes and the likelihood of
clinical complications from AIDS?
2. Why does the United States Public Health Service recommend monitoring CD4 counts
every 3 to 6 months in patients infected with HIV?