PART ONE: Religion & Reform: Students need to read the following primary sources located in the “Religion and Reform Reader.” Each primary source is associated with one of the major reform movements of the early 19th century. I have provided the reform movement (underlined) with each primary source to relate the reading with the proper movement.
After reading through the primary sources on religion and reform movements in the early 19thcentury, students need to choose THREE primary source readings and complete a single-source analysis for each. Your responses should describe who the author is, what type of source it is, the date, what the source says, the author’s intent, and the historical significance.
The Second Great Awakening: Revivalist Charles G. Finney Emphasizes Human Choice in Salvation, 1836
Abolition:David Walker’s Appeal to the Colored Citizens of the World, 1829 and William Lloyd Garrison Introduces The Liberator, 1831
Women’s Rights: Sarah Grimke Calls for Women’s Rights, 1838
Transcendentalism: Henry David Thoreau Reflects on Nature, 1854
Temperance: The Fruit of Alcohol and Temperance Lithographs, 1849
PART TWO: The Cotton Revolution: Students need to read the following primary sources located in the “The Cotton Revolution Reader.” Then, choose THREE primary source readings and complete a single-source analysis for each. Your responses should describe who the author is, what type of source it is, the date, what the source says, the author’s intent, and the historical significance.
Nat Turner Explains His Rebellion, 1831
Solomon Northup Describes a Slave Market, 1841
Proslavery Cartoon, 1850
George Fitzhugh Argues that Slavery is Better than Liberty and Equality, 1854
Harriet Jacobs on Rape and Slavery, 1860
Painting of Enslaved Persons for Sale, 1861
Reform and Revolution
The expansion of democracy and the changes resulting from the market revolution left Americans concerned about their lives and the nation’s future. Rising inequality and a bitter debate over slavery intensified anxieties.
As early as 1803, cotton had become the most important American export because the early industrial revolution centered on factories using cotton as the raw material to manufacture cloth. Throughout the world, hundreds of thousands of workers loaded, unloaded, spun, and wove cotton, and thousands of manufacturers in places as far-flung as Massachusetts, Lancashire in Great Britain, Normandy in France, and the suburbs of Moscow depended on a regular supply of American cotton. Therefore, cotton became the most important commodity in international trade, and three-fourths of the world’s cotton supply came from the Southern United States.
In this popular lithograph, The Way of Good and Evil, the artist portrays the social ills facing America, including alcoholism, prostitution, and crime. A tavern, brothel, and prison represent the path of destruction, while different buildings–a school, home, and church–anchor the center. The path to salvation leads from these institutions through college and eventually up into heaven.
In the artist’s view, Americans faced a clear choice: salvation or eternal damnation, and many Americans agreed. Thus, during the mid-nineteenth century, tens of thousands of Americans sought solutions for the nation’s social problems and clamored for reforms.
1.Religion and reform
2. The Cotton Revolution