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Thomas Aquina’s theory about goodness and badness

I need a master who are very familiar with Thomas Aquina’s Summa theologiae.

The folthe exam has two parts. You must respect word limits for each part. Please provide a total word count for each part (material exceeding the word limit will not be given any credit). Part I Word limit: 300 words each; 900 total Aquinas would not accept any of the following statements by philosophers who came after him (at least not without some significant corrections). Choose THREE of the four statements and explain briefly what Aquinas would take issue with in each of them and why. You may refer to relevant texts (“As Aquinas says in…”), but do not use direct quotations. Of course, you are not meant to provide an interpretation of each statement faithful to its respective author’s philosophy, but simply to read it from the perspective of Aquinas’ thought.

1. “Disregarding theology and opposition to theology, it is quite obvious that the world is neither good nor evil […], and that these concepts ‘good’ and ‘evil’ possess meaning only when applied to men […]” (Friedrich Nietzsche).

2. “Animals undoubtedly feel, think, love, hate, will, and even reason, though in a more imperfect manner than men” (David Hume).

3. “The will is able to will something bad that is neither really good nor apparently good. The will can also will against something good that is neither really bad nor apparently bad” (William of Ockham).

4. “The morality of the action depends entirely upon the intention—that is, upon what the agent wills to do. But the motive, that is, the feeling which makes him will so to do, when it makes no difference in the act, makes none in the morality […].” (John Stuart Mill).

Part II Word limit: 750 words Consider the following case: Marcellus is a computer science student. The humanities are not really his thing, but he has taken a philosophy class, which he is at risk of failing. However, he figured out how to hack his professor’s computer and thus get access to the final exam questions in advance. Marcellus needs the class to graduate. If he fails, his parents will have to support him and pay for school for yet another quarter (at least). They are not in good health and are having a hard time making ends meet. Marcellus loves his parents. He is convinced that, if he passed the class, he would even be able to get a job and help them out. After much deliberation, Marcellus decides to hack the professor’s computer and get the exam questions. His friend Caius, who is a philosopher, is happy to help and give him the answers, which he will memorize. The execution of the plan goes perfectly. He hacked the professor’s computer and obtained the exam questions (in passing, he also tried to peek into the professor’s private e-mail correspondence—just out of curiosity—but he got an urgent phone-call from his girlfriend and had to leave before reading any of it). With Caius’s help, Marcellus answered and memorized the exam questions, got a perfect score on the final, passed the class, graduated, got a great job, and now is helping his parents financially. Moreover, when he was helping Marcellus with one of the questions, Caius came up with a great idea for a philosophy paper, which eventually got him a full ride scholarship for grad school. While Marcellus is conflicted about what he did, Caius has no qualms whatsoever. He tells his friend: “we didn’t really harm anybody (your professor does not grade on a curve), and I don’t see anything wrong with what we did. Besides, it turned out great. I even feel that it was the right thing for us to do given your situation!” Present an analysis of the goodness/badness of Marcellus’s and Caius’s actions in light of Thomas Aquinas’s views studied in class. Employ at least some of the following concepts in your answer: object, natural and moral species, ends, circumstances, (foreseen and unforeseen) consequences, interior and exterior act (of the will), conscience, ignorance. Note: assume that the relevant virtues bearing on what was done are, at least, justice and charity. Refer to relevant texts by Aquinas in your answer (but avoid direct quotations).lowing is the specific requirements:

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